In today’s data center world, there is a lot of discussion over increasing rack density, utilizing the space you have without having to relocate, and more. Working with the space you have to accommodate growing data centers needs and increasing infrastructure demands may require some creative thinking but consolidation can be extremely beneficial. Data center square footage does not come at a cheap price and running large data centers or multiple data centers uses a lot of energy and manpower. Because of this, many data center managers are looking more closely at ways they can consolidate within their data center, or within their network of data centers, to save on the cost of overhead and energy use.
First, it is important to look at organizations that have multiple data centers. This can happen as a result of businesses acquiring other organizations that have existing data centers in place, or it can happen from gradual expansion of needs. During growth, it can seem or even actually be less expensive to simply keep those additional data centers open but, in the long run, it will not be. Separate data centers require separate energy usage, separate rent/mortgage, separate personnel, separate infrastructure and more. Those things add up over time and often what businesses find is that there are unnecessary redundancies that can be improved and solved with consolidation. The obvious concern with consolidation is downtime. Downtime can lead to loss of critical data, loss of money, and general frustration. Data Center Knowledge explains why consolidation is often the better choice, and what three areas to look at when beginning to consolidate, “In many cases, creating better efficiency and a more competitive data center revolves around consolidating data center resources. With that in mind, we look at three key areas that managers should look at when it comes to data center consolidation. This includes your hardware, software, and the users… There are so many new kinds of tools we can use to consolidate services, resources, and physical data center equipment. Solutions ranging for advanced software-defined technologies to new levels of virtualization help create a much more agile data center architecture… The software piece of the data center puzzle is absolutely critical. In this case, we’re talking about management and visibility. How well are you able to see all of your resources? What are you doing to optimize workload delivery? Because business is now directly tied to the capabilities of IT, it’s more important than ever to have proactive visibility into both the hardware and software layers of the modern data center.Having good management controls spanning virtual and physical components will allow you control resources and optimize overall performance… Data center consolidation must never negatively impact the user experience. Quite the opposite; a good consolidation project should actually improve overall performance and how the user connects. New technologies allow you to dynamically control and load-balance where the user gets their resources and data. New WAN control mechanisms allow for the delivery or rich resources from a variety of points. For the end-user, the entire process is completely transparent. For the data center, you have less resource requirements by leveraging cloud, convergence, and other optimization tools.” Every data center that has grown over time or has a network of data centers should carefully consider where consolidation can occur to save money, improve efficiency and improve overall quality of service.
WAN, wide-area networks, may have not been prioritized in the past but more and more data center managers are closely looking at WANs as the future of data centers. WAN optimization involves a series of techniques such as data duplication, traffic shaping, data caching, compression, network monitoring, and more in an effort to speed interconnectivity. TechTarget explains the importance of focusing on WAN moving forward, “A data center interconnect has historically replicated data from a primary data center to a disaster recovery site or backup data center. However, virtualization and cloud computing are transforming the role of a data center inter-connect, and wide area network (WAN) managers must adjust their approach to these increasingly critical WAN links… WAN managers need to understand the changing environment within data centers and prepare for an increased demand on the WAN links that interconnect multiple data centers… WAN optimization makes transfer protocols more efficient and reduces the volume of traffic through compression and deduplication.”
Every data center needs a WAN in place that is strategic and unique, carefully configured to meet the data center’s specific needs. As remote access needs and national capability needs increase connectivity and speed demands shift and become more and more important. When WAN is executed properly, bandwidth limitations are mitigated and access to applications improved. We have previously discussed the shift towards data center consolidation in an effort to improve efficiency while lowering the costs of overhead and personnel while optimizing infrastructure and securing physical assets but data center consolidation means consolidating IT infrastructure as well. With so many data centers consolidating IT infrastructure there are fewer small data centers which means further distance between the end-user and the data center and that can mean poor application performance from latency and network congestion. With fewer but larger servers, traffic is increased and WAN optimization becomes all-the-more important. Data center consolidation can move forward effectively through WAN optimization. WAN optimization will only continue to grow in importance moving forward, as Data Center Knowledge notes, “This means that while the CIO is trying to exercise tighter control over the corporate wide-area network (WAN), users are expecting looser controls and the ability to access anything, anywhere, anytime with scant regard for security or the impact on network performance. Look into the usage logs of most corporations today and you will find hours spent on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube, for example.This usage is expensive. The study further concluded that social media networks could potentially be costing Britain up to $22.16 billion.The solution CIOs desire is a fully integrated single platform that delivers complete WAN optimization capabilities, the insight to allow management to keep its eye on exactly what traffic is traversing the network, and the flexibility to dynamically optimize it when and if required.”
When you think about “protection” in a data center, you probably think about protecting critical data, protecting infrastructure, protecting uptime, etc. But, it is also important to think about protecting data center workers. Whether a data center is small or large, due to the large amount of electrical equipment, there are certain safety measures that must be taken to ensure worker safety. One concern that data centers must protect against is “arc-flash.” Data center workers are in a conundrum of sorts – to work on, or perform maintenance on, certain electrical components without risk of arc-flash, electrical power to the components must be turned off. But, often, retaining uptime means that various electrical components cannot be shut off. DataInformed explains what arc-flash is, and why it is such a significant concern in data centers, “An important electrical risk in the data center is arc-flash incidents. Arc-flash incidents, which are caused by arcing from an electrical fault, potentially creating a blast similar to an explosion, happen between five and 10 times a day in U.S. industry and result in one death every single workday. Although data center design, permitting and construction are in adherence to modern electrical safety requirements, data center workers must be trained and competent, and must maintain compliance with all OSHA requirements to keep electrical safety in the data center at its current high standard.”
Not only is maximizing safety to protect against arc-flash important for peace of mind for both employer and employee, but it will help a data center remain OSHA compliant which reduces liability and cuts down on costs. The specifics of how a data center will implement protection against arc-flash are complex and highly individualized. Data centers that do implement best security practices, though, will ultimately improve safety and uptime. When designing infrastructure and preparing a data center it is critical that an arc –flash analysis be completed before a data center is up and running at full capacity. Data Center Knowledge elaborates on what is involved in an arc-flash analysis or study, ““An arc flash study looks at all the electrical components, from the source at the power company, the whole way through to the plugs that you plug into your IT equipment,” Furmanski told us in an interview. “They look at how all the circuit breakers are set up — it’s called a coordination study — and they look at the power going through. They punch in all these formulas to figure out, will these breakers move fast enough if there’s an electrical short, or will they move too slowly and let the capability of an arc flash be created?” If your data center has not recently had an arc-flash analysis, or you are not sure if it ever has, it is incredibly important to complete one as soon as possible to maximize worker safety and uptime.
Posted in Computer Room Design, computer room maintenance, Data Center Construction, Data Center Design, data center equipment, Data Center Infrastructure Management, DCIM, Facility Maintenance
Tagged computer room maintenance, data center equipment, data center maintenance, Phoenix Data Center Construction
Data centers function with a continuous goal of maximizing uptime. It is important to avoid outages at all cost while constantly trying to improve energy efficiency and maximize data storage and speed. There are a variety of factors that influence data center outages but the bottom line is that, from time to time, they do happen. The problem is that, when outages occur, they are not only frustrating; they can result in data loss and significant financial loss. So, what is a data center to do? Are these outages simply unavoidable, aggravating occurrences? No. In fact, Emerson Network Power notes just how preventable these outages can be, “According to the 2013 Study on Data Center Outages by the Ponemon Institute, sponsored by Emerson Network Power, 71% of survey respondents said some or all of unplanned outages experienced within the last 24 months were preventable.” Below, we discuss 2 common types of data center outages that are, by and large, preventable.
- Human Error
- Human error is, unfortunately, one of the most highly cited reasons for data center outages. This can be avoided with simple measures such as shielding “emergency off” buttons. Emergency Power Off buttons are often not labeled correctly or protected properly and by simply shielding and labeling them, data center outages can be avoided. Additionally, well-communicated operating instructions and procedure methods can help reduce errors that occur from lack of information or knowledge. Finally, what may seem like a no-brainer – strict food and drink policies. Even a small liquid or food spill on critical equipment could lead to an outage so it is important to have strict regulations in place.
- UPS/Battery Failure
- Power supplies can fail for a number of reasons – age, local power outages, storms, surges, and more. For this reason it is critical that an uninterruptible power supply be used but, perhaps even more importantly, it is necessary to have redundancy. Have a power supply that is adequate size for your entire capacity and power load, as well as a backup power supply that is also adequate and be certain to perform proper UPS and battery maintenance routinely. Green House Data describes the importance of a proper DCIM, “As data centers become more and more dense, they are drawing more power at each rack. Don’t allow your UPS design to fall below your average IT load. A Data Center Infrastructure Management (DCIM) platform can help you evaluate power draw throughout a given period. Redundant UPS systems are also a necessity to achieve the goal of 100% uptime.”
Posted in computer room maintenance, Data Center Battery, Data Center Design, data center equipment, Data Center Infrastructure Management, data center maintenance, DCIM, Facility Maintenance, Uninterruptible Power Supply, UPS Maintenance
Tagged data center maintenance, Uninterruptible Power Supply, Uninterruptible Power Systems, UPS, UPS Batteries, UPS maintenance
What will the data center look like in 5 years or even 10 years? It may sound impossible to predict but experts are weighing in and providing their predictions for the future of data centers. The storage systems and servers of today will be a distant memory. Cloud computing will take on a whole new life. While 5 or 10 years may sound far off, it is important for the data centers of today to start anticipating these changes and preparing for the future so that they can stay ahead of the game and not fall by the wayside. Storage needs are changing daily so it is easy to understand that they will be significant in the future. Many experts see data centers making the switch to being scale data centers by 2025. Data Centers Knowledge elaborates on what “scale data centers” are, “Scale data centers are data centers designed the same way web giants like Google, Microsoft, and Facebook design their facilities and IT systems today. Intel isn’t saying most data centers will be the size of Google or Facebook data centers, but it is saying that most of them will be designed using the same principles, to deliver computing at scale.”
Delivering computing at scale is not a simple concept or an easily achievable task but it is necessary to meet the expected demands of technology and users of the future. Data Center Knowledge goes on to explain the future demands that will necessitate scale data centers, “Things like the three major forms of cloud computing (IT infrastructure, platform, or software delivered as subscription services), connected cars, personalized healthcare, and so on, all require large scale. “If you’re doing a connected-car type of solution, that’s not a small-scale type of deployment,” Waxman said. “If you’re doing healthcare and you’re trying to do personalized medicine, that’s a large-scale deployment.’” As data volumes increase, data centers must be able to scale non-disruptively. For data centers, infrastructure must be carefully managed to be capable of scaling up on demand. The costs to meet these demands can be managed more easily by gradually scaling up data centers. Schneider Electric also notes that scale will be the future of data centers, ““We’ll see a dominance of at scale wholesale data centers, with a movement towards at scale cloud providers and the verticalization and specialization of the smaller providers in between,” he says. “There will also be a secondary movement to the edge.” He defines “at scale” as at least 15MW or more, a size needed to support cost effective IoT and big data deployments — two of the drivers changing the market according to Doug. “Big data, derived in large from the IoT, is helping shape the way companies develop, improve and bring products to market and serve consumers and customers,” said Doug, “Ultimately, all that data resides in a data center where there must be enough power to process and analyze it.”
Data center cooling is a topic that could be discussed endlessly. What works best for one data center may not work well for another depending on a variety of factors including data center location, size of data center and type of building. Cooling with water is an eco-friendly and exceptionally effective means of cooling and what many are finding is that chilled water may be even more effective. It remains the goal of most data centers to effectively cool while also being efficient and eco-friendly. When using a chilled water system, a water chiller is used to produce chilled water which is then pumped into the CRAH (computer room air handler) and then then circulates around chilled coils and cools the air in the computer room by removing the heat from a room. It circulates out and then gets chilled again and sent back through the system, making it a very efficient means of cooling a data center.
In the event of an outage, air cooled chillers can actually return to operation more quickly, making redundancy easier to achieve as well. Additionally, chilled water cooling is easily scalable and adaptable to the ever-changing needs of a data center. In an effort to improve efficiency, many data centers are more closely examining just how cool the chilled water cooling system needs to be. If it can be adjusted by even a degree or two, a significant improvement in energy efficiency can be made. Schneider Electric further examines the advantage of opting to adjust chilled water cooling temperatures in data centers, “In a nutshell, that means many data centers don’t need to be as cool as they used to. Most data centers will find temperatures of 24°-25°C (75°-77°F) will suffer no difference in reliability vs. cooler temperatures… If temperatures inside the data center are higher than in the past, that means the temperature of the chilled water used to cool it – known as the set point for the chillers – can also be higher. As it turns out, that has a profound effect on cooling system efficiency. Raising the chilled water set point from the usual values of 7° to 10°C used in comfort cooling chilled water plants up to 18° to 20°C or higher can result in an operational expense savings of about 40%. That’s because less energy is required to cool the water year-round. In summer, higher evaporating temperatures mean compressors don’t have to work as hard, resulting in improved efficiency. In cooler months, users benefit from many more hours of economizer or “free cooling” operation. A higher set point also results in a capital expense savings of some 30% because chillers don’t have to be as large as at traditional temperatures.” With a re-examination of what temperature your data center needs to maintain to maximize uptime, data centers may be able to adjust their chilled water cooling temperature to save a significant amount of expense and dramatically improve data center energy efficiency.
In the wake of many high profile data breaches, from government institutions to retailers, there is an evolving environment in the data management world. An environment that requires more active security policy to be established in order to reduce the amount of time that sensitive data is unknowingly exposed to malicious sources. Having strictly preventive security policy although at times effective opens the door to a flood of destructive malware as relaxed policy in regards to monitoring of data movement can allow compromised systems to be unpatched for indeterminate periods of time, unnecessarily exposing data systems.
Active Monitoring Systems
Although preventative maintenance is an essential part of security, actively monitoring data systems can result in quicker detection of penetration by malicious software, these breaches may go unnoticed for long periods of time if only preventative security measures are taken in the data center. It’s a given that systems should should be monitored on a daily basis, but dealing with a large flood of data and knowing how to prioritize it is near impossible for a large data center. Especially in the face of remote access by authorized staff from various locations, of whom may unknowingly bring security risks into the operational environment. With such big data coming in so quickly from a variety of secure and insecure networks the only answer to monitoring such a large scale system of data transfer and accompanying network activity is software based analytics. Big data can be sorted and actively monitored in a meaningful manner through the analytics derived from computational algorithms, algorithms of which can sort malicious activity based on potential risk to reduce false positives or non factor threats that will be blocked by preventative security systems, giving security personnel a more focused view of malicious activity in the network. Any and all detection can be stored and logged for future reference to increase efficiency of automated detection systems. Software based analysis and monitoring of network activity can help identify issues as they stream in, with sorting of priority and potential risk security personnel are able to catch threats immedietly. This reduces liability as security breaches are detected on the fly, reducing exposure of sensitive data and the time of which malicious software has access to said data systems.
Winter is soon approaching and with it comes the concern of not just managing the drop in temperature, but also managing the low humidity that comes with it. Ensuring temperature and humidity control systems are set to the industry recommended ranges and are receiving routine maintenance in the coming winter months will help prevent any unexpected impairment from these environmental conditions. Below are some considerations to be made in order to prevent downtime or loss of of data in the winter months.
Temperature Control Systems and Maintenance
Problems arising from improper preparation for these yearly temperature lows can be minor or in some cases catastrophic. Being one step ahead of the incoming chill is an essential preparation to ensure data center up-time. Maintaining thermal management systems is critically important as low temperatures and the accompanying low humidity produces static electricity, which can potentially damaging sensitive electronics systems, creating a situation where indiscriminate data loss is a real possibility. However, maintaining environmental conditions within industry standard guidelines is not not as simple as running systems until the desired effects are achieved. With the large fluctuations in temperature and humidity that come during the winter months air conditioning units and humidity control systems will be under duress attempting to keep the desired stable conditions within the data center. If these systems don’t receive proper servicing they can cause leakage of coolant or water into the data center through failure of internal components, creating a multitude of issues as not only will flooding or leakage have to be dealt with, but also unregulated thermal conditions during their repair. Receiving routine maintenance of these systems to check for faulty hardware is essential as always, but a pre-winter diagnostic for thermal management systems during this time of year can help prevent a potential disaster and ensure operations continue unhindered.
Automated Thermal Management Systems
Keeping the temperature and humidity in a narrow range is not an easy accomplished task. Luckily there are automated control systems that can act as hive-mind for a network of thermal management systems, ensuring the ideal temperature and humidity zones are reached. These systems bring a big picture to temperature and humidity control by ensuring individual systems in the building don’t counteract each other’s purpose and they can give proper warning of inefficiency, such as in the case of one unit futility counteracting another by humidifying while another is dehumidifying. This expansive view into the cooling systems within a data center is a great diagnostics system and helps reduce the workload and potential for human error, in turn reducing costs through better overall efficiency of the system.
The most underrated force that leads to downtime or inefficiency in the data center is personnel. Even when systems are functioning optimally human error can lead to unexpected consequences due to carelessness or forgetfulness. As systems become more automated and self reliant the human factor is stronger than ever in the reasons why downtime is experienced. There are some considerations that should be made in how to manage human error in the data center and reduce downtime associated with it.
Proper documentation in a task mannered step by step checklist is a great way to reduce risks associated with routine tasks. Even the most experienced IT worker may fall out of step if procedures become too visceral, leaving room for mistakes that result in downtime. This is why it’s critical that guidelines are made for all tasks, in order to ensure that there is reference for anyone who needs it, especially in emergency situations or to rectify a mistake. All equipment, should be labeled properly and diagrams drawn up to ensure procedures can be followed without unneeded time to find the referenced items or areas said in documentation. At a bare minimum critical items such as the emergency off and switching devices should be labeled.
Training and Consistent Policy
Training personnel to follow a standard set of practices within the business is essential for those with access to the facility or data systems. All personnel should be familiar with essential equipment in order to avoid an unexpected shutdown as even with proper documentation carelessness or lack of understanding of importance of systems can lead to mistakes. Security should be tight with a sign in policy that requires observation of non-essential personnel not just to protect the equipment, but to ensure nothing is inadvertently damaged. As with any electronics liquids and foods are a huge risk on a daily basis and should be kept away from any rooms with critical equipment, proper signage should be in place and this policy should be enforced thoroughly.
Providing energy to servers is a substantial part of a data center’s costs. In many cases this is due to servers running consistently at peak performance in preparation for peak capacity. This creates a lot of unnecessary expenditure as these systems are not always needed to run at such high performance levels. This creates inflated minimum power requirements for maintaining critical systems, forcing unnecessary expansion of power management systems and further increased costs.
Dynamic or Scheduled Performance
Protecting functionality while ensuring peak performance is a huge challenge, but one that should not be ignored as there are potentially substantial returns in capital from adjustable performance in these systems. Servers waste a tremendous amount of power by running at peak performance under times of low demand, especially if the suite of applications are technically demanding and require powerful systems. Deactivating servers or resizing clusters on a schedule of known usage or under dynamically controlled systems, of which can detect potential shifts in usage and need for more functionality, can help dramatically reduce power consumption. Reducing idle power consumption is a significant way to cut costs and even the largest business can benefit through dynamic management of performance. These methods reduce servers drain on power while ensuring there is no downside on the user end, even if there is unusually large loads of traffic.
Load balancing with Multiple Data Centers
As a business grows and it’s pool of users expand it may become beneficial to have data centers strategically located, running applications only in areas of which are located in times of off peak hour. Off peak hours provide significantly reduced prices in power due to less demand outside of the typical business hours. Concerns with latency might make this an issue for some businesses, but for the majority of computational tasks running applications with a few hundred milliseconds of latency is not a concern. In certain cases redirecting traffic with needs for low latency to a first tier of high cost data centers and redirecting those with no latency concerns to cheap power areas would be ideal. Integrating functionality across multiple data centers allows capacity and latency to be shifted with user demand determining performance, saving capital in the process. Such varying location can also offer more stability as systems aren’t isolated in their power supplier and servers draw power independently increasing the reliability of these platforms.